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The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1999.

The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction; and the birth of the Digital Revolution. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life. The term "short twentieth century" was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991.

Global total fertility rates, sea level rise and ecological collapses increased; the resulting competition for land and dwindling resources accelerated deforestation, water depletion, and the mass extinction of many of the world's species and decline in the population of others; consequences which are now being dealt with. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; world population reached an estimated 2 billion in 1927; by late 1999, the global population reached 6 billion. Global literacy averaged 80%; global lifespan-averages exceeded 40+ years for the first time in history, with over half achieving 70+ years (three decades longer than it was a century ago)....
 
 
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1999.

The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction; and the birth of the Digital Revolution. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life. The term "short twentieth century" was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991.

Global total fertility rates, sea level rise and ecological collapses increased; the resulting competition for land and dwindling resources accelerated deforestation, water depletion, and the mass extinction of many of the world's species and decline in the population of others; consequences which are now being dealt with. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; world population reached an estimated 2 billion in 1927; by late 1999, the global population reached 6 billion. Global literacy averaged 80%; global lifespan-averages exceeded 40+ years for the first time in history, with over half achieving 70+ years (three decades longer than it was a century ago)....

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    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION : Technological Innovations
  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION : Technological Innovations
The Industrial Revolution was a period of the 18th century marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely on steam power, fueled primarily by coal, rather than on animal labor, or on water or wind power; and by a shift...
 
    Leo Tolstoy, Russian Writer
  Leo Tolstoy, Russian Writer
Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Later in life, he also wrote plays and essays. His two most famous works, the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, are acknowledged as two of the greatest...
 
    Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria
  Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confedera...
 
    Leopold II of Belgium
  Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold Louis-Philippe Marie Victor of Saxe-Coburg, succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 as Leopold II, King of the Belgians and remained king until his death. Outside of Belgium, however, he is chiefly remembered...
 
    Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Dutch Architect
  Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Dutch Architect
Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a prominent Dutch architect. Berlage was born in Amsterdam. He studied architecture at the Zurich Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled extensively for 3 years through Europe. In the 1880s...
 
    Theodore Roosevelt, 26th Us President, 1901-1909
  Theodore Roosevelt, 26th Us President, 1901-1909
Theodore Roosevelt is mostly remembered as the twenty-sixth President of the United States (1901-1909), but this astonishingly multifaceted man was a great many other things as well. In addition to holding elective office as a New York State Assem...
 
    Max Planck, Inventor of Quantum Theory
  Max Planck, Inventor of Quantum Theory
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was a German physicist who is considered to be the inventor of quantum theory. In 1899, he discovered a new fundamental constant, which is named Planck's constant, and is, for example, used to calculate the energy of a ph...
 
    Wilhelm II, Last Emperor of Germany
  Wilhelm II, Last Emperor of Germany
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs...
 
    Henry Ford, Car Mass Production 1913
  Henry Ford, Car Mass Production 1913
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he developed and...
 
    Nicholas II, Last Russian Tsar
  Nicholas II, Last Russian Tsar
Nicholas II or Nikolai II was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and...
 
    Mahatma Gandhi, Led India to Independence
  Mahatma Gandhi, Led India to Independence
Gandhi became the international symbol of a free India. He lived a spiritual and ascetic life of prayer, fasting, and meditation. The Mahatma's political and spiritual hold on India was so great that the British authorities dared not interfere with h...
 
    Lenin, Founder of the Soviet Republics
  Lenin, Founder of the Soviet Republics
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, unt...
 
    Piet Mondrian, Pioneer of 20th century Abstract Art
  Piet Mondrian, Pioneer of 20th century Abstract Art
Piet Mondrian was a Dutch painter and theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century. He is known for being one of the pioneers of 20th century abstract art, as he changed his artistic direction from figurative painti...
 
    Roald Amundsen, 1st on the South Pole
  Roald Amundsen, 1st on the South Pole
Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He led the Antarctic expedition of 1910–1912 which was the first to reach the South Pole. They arrived at the South Pole on 14 December 1911, 35 days before Scott. Amundsen...
 
    Sir Winston Churchill
  Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill was a politician, a soldier, an artist, and the 20th century's most famous and celebrated Prime Minister. His father was Lord Randolph Churchill, a Nineteenth Century Tory politician. He was educated at Harrow and at Sandhurst Royal...
 
    Albert Einstein, Relativity Theory - 1905
  Albert Einstein, Relativity Theory - 1905
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. Einstein developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science...
 
    Joseph Stalin, Dictator of the Soviet Union
  Joseph Stalin, Dictator of the Soviet Union
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian-born Soviet revolutionary and political leader. He governed the Soviet Union as dictator from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, serving as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1953 and as General S...
 
    Atatürk, Founder Turkish Republic
  Atatürk, Founder Turkish Republic
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a Turkish army officer, reformist statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him in 193...
 
    Mussolini, Il Duce, Dictator of Italy
  Mussolini, Il Duce, Dictator of Italy
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pret...
 
    Le Corbusier, Architect
  Le Corbusier, Architect
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier, was an architect, designer, urbanist, and writer, famous for being one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930....
 
    Heidegger, German Philosopher
  Heidegger, German Philosopher
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important...
 
    Adolf Hitler, Der Führer
  Adolf Hitler, Der Führer
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was Chancellor of Germ...
 
    Charlie Chaplin
  Charlie Chaplin
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. Chaplin became a worldwide icon through his screen persona "the Tramp" and is consider...
 
    Charles de Gaulle
  Charles de Gaulle
Leader of the French resistance in WWII - A lifetime military man, de Gaulle was minister for National Defense and War in June, 1940 when France capitulated to Germany. DeGaulle escaped to Britain, where he made a famous broadcast calling on the Fren...
 
    Generalísimo Francisco Franco, Dictator of Spain
  Generalísimo Francisco Franco, Dictator of Spain
Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was head of state of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Known as "El Caudillo de España" ("the leader"), he presided over the fascist authoritarian government of the Spanish State following victory in the Spanish...
 
    Mao Zedong, Leader Communist Party of China
  Mao Zedong, Leader Communist Party of China
Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, poet, political theorist and founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its...
 
    Harry Truman, 33rd US President, 1945-1952
  Harry Truman, 33rd US President, 1945-1952
Harry Truman was president of America (1945-1952) after the death of F.D. Roosevelt in April 1945. Harry Truman gave the order for the atomic bombs to be dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and he represented the United States at Potsdam, the last of t...
 
    Alfred Hitchcock, Director
  Alfred Hitchcock, Director
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. He directed 53 feature films[a] in a career spanning six decades, becoming as well-known as...
 
    Al Capone, Scarface
  Al Capone, Scarface
Alphonse Gabriel Capone, sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface", was an American mobster, crime boss, and businessman who attained notoriety during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crim...
 
    Jean-Paul Sartre, French Philosopher
  Jean-Paul Sartre, French Philosopher
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    Ronald Reagan, 40th US President, 1981–1989
  Ronald Reagan, 40th US President, 1981–1989
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    World War I, WW1
  World War I, WW1
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    The Panama Canal
  The Panama Canal
By August 15, 1914 the Panama Canal was officially opened by the passing of the SS Ancon. At the time, no single effort in American history had exacted such a price in dollars or in human life. The American expenditures from 1904 to...
 
    Murder of Franz Ferdinand : Start WW1
  Murder of Franz Ferdinand : Start WW1
World War I started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria- Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 by a member of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society. Austria-Hungary's reaction to the dea...
 
    Orson Welles
  Orson Welles
George Orson Welles was a uniquely talented artist, but one who was doomed to spend much of his life unable to realize his ambitions. It didn't start that way: Welles was a precocious and gifted child who began acting, writing, and directing for thea...
 
    John F. Kennedy, 35th US President, 1961-1963
  John F. Kennedy, 35th US President, 1961-1963
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, commonly known as Jack Kennedy, or by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until he was assassinated in November 1963. Notable events during his...
 
    Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa
  Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was South Africa's first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully r...
 
    Margaret Thatcher, The Iron Lady
  Margaret Thatcher, The Iron Lady
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and is curre...
 
    Fidel Castro, President Republic of Cuba
  Fidel Castro, President Republic of Cuba
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    Marilyn Monroe
  Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe personified Hollywood glamour with an unparalleled glow and energy that enamored the world. Although she was an alluring beauty with voluptuous curves and a generous pout, Marilyn was more than a '50s sex goddess. Her apparent vulnerab...
 
    Andy Warhol, American Artist
  Andy Warhol, American Artist
Andy Warhol was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, and advertising that flourished by the...
 
    Martin Luther King, "I Have a Dream"
  Martin Luther King, "I Have a Dream"
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christ...
 
    Anne Frank, Diary of a Young Girl
  Anne Frank, Diary of a Young Girl
Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank was a German-born diarist. One of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the publication of The Diary of a Young Girl (originally Het Achterhuis; English: The Secret Annex), i...
 
    Neil Armstrong, 1st Man on the Moon
  Neil Armstrong, 1st Man on the Moon
As spacecraft commander for Apollo 11, the first piloted lunar landing mission, Armstrong gained the distinction of being the first person to step on the surface of the Moon. On July 16, 1969, Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin be...
 
    Mikhail Gorbachev, End of the Soviet Union
  Mikhail Gorbachev, End of the Soviet Union
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. His attempts at reform led to the end of the Cold War, but also inadvertently caused the end of the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CP...
 
    Elvis Presley, the King of Rock and Roll
  Elvis Presley, the King of Rock and Roll
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer, musician, and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as "the King of Rock and Roll", or simply, "the King". Born in Tupelo, Mississippi...
 
    World War 2, WW2
  World War 2, WW2
World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries - including all the great powers - eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, direc...
 
    The Holocaust, Genocide World War II
  The Holocaust, Genocide World War II
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators killed some six million European Jews. The victims included 1.5 million children and constituted about two-thirds of...
 
    Bob Dylan, American Singer-songwriter
  Bob Dylan, American Singer-songwriter
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, artist, and writer. He has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates fr...
 
    Muhammad Ali, The Greatest
  Muhammad Ali, The Greatest
Muhammad Ali is an American former professional boxer, generally considered among the greatest heavyweights in the sport's history. A controversial and polarizing figure during his early career, Ali is today widely regarded for the skills he displaye...
 
    Korean War
  Korean War
North Korea launched its invasion of the South with every confidence that they would win the war in a month or two. They were well armed by the USSR, their ranks filled with battle-hardened veterans of China's Civil War, and the Truman administration...
 
    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, WW2
  Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, WW2
The United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, with the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed between 129...
 
    Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of The Web, 1989
  Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of The Web, 1989
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    Sputnik 1 : First Satellite in Space
  Sputnik 1 : First Satellite in Space
Sputnik 1 or Elementary Satellite-1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Eart...
 
    The Beatles
  The Beatles
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. With members John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they became widely regarded as the foremost and most influential act of the rock era. Rooted in skiffle, bea...
 
    Vietnam War
  Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular war in which Americans ever fought. And there is no reckoning the cost. The toll in suffering, sorrow, in rancorous national turmoil can never be tabulated. No one wants ever to see America so divi...
 
    The Cultural Revolution, China
  The Cultural Revolution, China
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal wa...
 
    Apollo 11 : First Man on the Moon
  Apollo 11 : First Man on the Moon
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC. Armst...
 
    Chernobyl, Nuclear Power Accident
  Chernobyl, Nuclear Power Accident
The disaster that occured at a nuclear power plant in Chernobyl in the former USSR (now Ukraine) plant on April 25th 1986 is an example of the devastation that can occur when a nuclear reaction goes wrong. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant located 80...
 
    The Fall of The Berlin Wall
  The Fall of The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. In 1989 a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East G...
 
    Tiananmen Square Protests, China
  Tiananmen Square Protests, China
The Tiananmen Square protests were a set of national protests in the People's Republic of China, which occurred between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989, centered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The protests were part of a conflict between the...
 
    The Rwandan Genocide
  The Rwandan Genocide
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a mass slaughter of Tutsi, Twa, and moderate Hutu in Rwanda, which took place between 7 April and 15 July 1994 during the Rwandan Civil War. In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Fro...
 
    Srebrenica Massacre, Bosnian War
  Srebrenica Massacre, Bosnian War
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide, was the July 1995 killing of more than 8,000 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. The killing was perpetrated by units of the Army...
 
    21st CENTURY : The Digital Revolution
  21st CENTURY : The Digital Revolution
The twenty-first century is the first century of the third millennium (2001 - 3000). The increasing prevalence of global communications and encounters with other calendars (Islamic calendar, Chinese calendar, Persian calendar, Hebrew calendar) sugges...
 
       
         
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