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Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Edward Tufte calls him and William Playfair "The two great inventors of modern graphical designs".

Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. Also, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space. Lambert is credited with the first proof that Pi is irrational by using a generalized continued fraction for the function tan x. Euler believed the conjecture but could not prove that Pi was irrational, and it is speculated that Aryabhata also believed this, in 500 CE. Lambert also devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler....
 
 
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Edward Tufte calls him and William Playfair "The two great inventors of modern graphical designs".

Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. Also, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space. Lambert is credited with the first proof that Pi is irrational by using a generalized continued fraction for the function tan x. Euler believed the conjecture but could not prove that Pi was irrational, and it is speculated that Aryabhata also believed this, in 500 CE. Lambert also devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler....

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