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Johann Benedict Listing was a German mathematician. J. B. Listing was born in Frankfurt and died in Göttingen. He first introduced the term "topology", in a famous article published in 1847, although he had used the term in correspondence some years earlier. He (independently) discovered the properties of the halftwisted strip at the same time as August Ferdinand Möbius, and went further in exploring the properties of strips with higherorder twists (paradromic rings). He discovered topological invariants which came to be called Listing numbers....

















August Ferdinand Möbius, Mathematician
August Ferdinand Möbius was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of the Möbius strip, a nonorientable twodimensional surface with only one side when embedded in threedimensional Euclidean space. It... 



















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