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    Buys Ballot, Chemist and Meteorologist  
Buys Ballot was a Dutch chemist and meteorologist after whom Buys-Ballot's law and the Buys Ballot table are named. Buys Ballot tested the Doppler effect for sound waves in 1845 by using a group of musicians playing a calibrated note on...
 
    Austen Henry Layard, Excavator of Nimrud and Nineveh  
Sir Austen Henry Layard was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, politician and diplomat. He is best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Nineveh, where he uncovered a large proportion...
 
    Joseph Dalton Hooker, Botanists  
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker was one of the greatest British botanists and explorers of the 19th century. Hooker was a founder of geographical botany, and Charles Darwin's closest friend. He was Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, for...
 
    Ada Lovelace, 1st Computer Programmer  
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, born Augusta Ada Byron and now commonly known as Ada Lovelace, was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the An...
 
    George Boole, Foundations Information Age  
George Boole was an English mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of The Laws of Thought (1854) which contains Boolean algeb...
 
    Henri Nestlé, Founder of Nestlé  
Henri Nestlé was a German-born Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé, the world's largest food and beverage company, as well as one of the main creators of condensed milk. Before Nestlé turned 22 in 1836, he had completed a four-y...
 
    John Snow, Physician  
John Snow, Physician, reformer. During the cholera epidemics of the late 1840s and early 1850s, physician John Snow realized that cholera is transmitted through contaminated water. His essay, "On the Mode of Communication of Cholera" was fi...
 
    Dr. David Livingstone, Missionary  
David Livingstone was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Perhaps one of the most popular nat...
 
    John Rae, Explored Northern Canada  
John Rae was a Scottish doctor who explored Northern Canada, surveyed parts of the Northwest Passage and reported the fate of the Franklin Expedition. Rae was born at the Hall of Clestrain in the parish of Orphir in Orkney. After studyi...
 
    Galle, Discovery Neptune - 1846  
Johann Gottfried Galle was a German astronomer at the Berlin Observatory who, with the assistance of student Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, was the first person to view the planet Neptune, and know what he was looking at, on 23 September, 1846. H...
 
    Le Verrier, Co-discovery of Neptune  
Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier was a French mathematician who, beginning in 1838, studied the causes of perturbations in the Solar System. His work led to improved knowledge of the masses of the planets, the scale of the Solar System, and th...
 
    Edward Blyth, Zoologist  
Edward Blyth was an English zoologist and pharmacist. He was one of the founders of zoology in India. Blyth was born in London in 1810. In 1841 he travelled to India to become the curator of the museum of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal...
 
    Henry Rawlinson, Deciphered Cuneiform  
Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet GCB was an English soldier, diplomat and orientalist. He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of Assyriology." Knowledge of cuneiform was lost until 1835 when Henry Rawlinson, a British East Ind...
 
    Charles Darwin, Evolution Theory - 1859  
Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist who realised and presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors, through the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution o...
 
    Johann Benedict Listing, Mathematician  
Johann Benedict Listing was a German mathematician. J. B. Listing was born in Frankfurt and died in Göttingen. He first introduced the term "topology", in a famous article published in 1847, although he had used the term in correspondence s...
 
       
 
         
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