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    Edward Jenner, Smallpox Vaccine - 1796  
Jenner was an English physician and pupil of John Hunter, a pioneer in comparative anatomy and morphology. Jenner's invaluable experiments, beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps, proved that cowpox provided i...
 
    Phillis Wheatley, First published African-American Female Poet  
Phillis Wheatley was the first published African-American female poet. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven or eight and transported to North America. She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who tau...
 
    Robespierre, Leader French Revolution  
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, known to his contemporaries also as "the Incorruptible", is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. He earned the nickname of "the Incorruptible" through his selfless...
 
    James Monroe, 5th US President, 1817-1825  
James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825), and the fourth Virginian to hold the office. Monroe, a close ally of Thomas Jefferson was a diplomat who supported the French Revolution. He played a leading role in the...
 
    Mary Wollstonecraft, Feminist  
Wollstonecraft's lasting place in the history of philosophy rests upon A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). In this classical feminist text, she appealed to egalitarian social philosophy as the basis for the creation and preservatio...
 
    Arthur Wellesley, The Duke of Wellington  
Commissioned an ensign in the British Army, he would rise to prominence in the Napoleonic Wars, eventually reaching the rank of field marshal. Wellington commanded the Allied forces during the Peninsular War, pushing the French Army out of...
 
    Gauss, Prince of Mathematicians  
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician, who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, Matrix theo...
 
    John James Audubon, Birds of America  
John James Audubon (Jean-Jacques) was a French American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter. He was notable for his expansive studies to document all types of American birds and for his detailed illustrations that depicted the birds in t...
 
    Fresnel, Acceptance of the Wave Theory of Light  
Augustin-Jean Fresnel was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the...
 
    James Buchanan, 15th US President, 1857-1861  
James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). In the 1850s, the question of slavery divided the United States. Hopes ran high that the new President, "Old Buck," might be the man to avert national crisis. He failed entire...
 
    Morse, Inventor Morse Code - 1836  
Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegra...
 
    Delacroix, French Romantic Painter  
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was the most important of the French Romantic painters. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his...
 
    Honore de Balzac, French Novelist  
Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie Humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus. Owing to his keen observation of detail and u...
 
    John Brown, Abolitionist  
John Brown was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Ja...
 
    Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III, 2nd French Empire  
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the first President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I. He was the first President of France to be elected by a...
 
       
 
         
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