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Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, a graduate of the University of Amsterdam, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and... 






Amalie Emmy Noether was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. She invariably used the name "Emmy Noether" in her life and publications. She was described by Pavel Alexandrov, Al... 






Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. He was also part of the team of physicists... 






Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician and autodidact. Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractio... 






Erwin Schrödinger, sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel Prizewinning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mecha... 






Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman or Friedmann was a Russian and Soviet cosmologist and mathematician. He discovered the expandinguniverse solution to the general relativity field equations in 1922, which was corroborated by Edwin Hubble's... 






Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an AustrianBritish philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University... 






Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century. Hubble is k... 






Sir William Lawrence Bragg was an Australianborn British physicist and Xray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of Xray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure. He was joint recipient (with h... 






Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duc de Broglie was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory. In his 1924 PhD thesis, he postulated the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave... 






Georges Lemaître was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest, honorary prelate, professor of physics and astronomer at the Catholic University of Leuven. He sometimes used the title Abbé or Monseigneur. Lemaître proposed what became known as the Bi... 






Satyendra Nath Bose was an Indian physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for BoseEinstein statistics and the theory of the BoseEinst... 






Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after being nominated by Albert Einstein, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his disc... 






Enrico Fermi was an Italianborn, naturalized American physicist particularly known for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile1, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and pa... 






Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key creators of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during t... 



















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