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    Henrietta Lacks, Donor HeLa Cell  
Henrietta Lacks was the unwitting donor of cells from her cancerous tumor, which were cultured by George Otto Gey to create an immortal cell line for medical research. This is now known as the HeLa cell line....
 
    James Lovelock, Gaia Hypothesis  
James Ephraim Lovelock is an independent scientist, environmentalist and futurist who lives in Dorset, England. He is best known for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, which postulates that the biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the cap...
 
    Claude Shannon, Founder Information Theory  
Claude Elwood Shannon was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory". Shannon is famous for having founded information theory with one landmark paper published in 1948. But...
 
    Francis Crick, Co-discoverer DNA Code, 1953  
Francis Crick was an English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being one of two co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, together with James D. Watson. He, Watson and Maurice Wilki...
 
    Norman Ramsey, Atomic Clock  
Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr. was an American physicist. In 1949, while working at Harvard, Ramsey applied a key insight to improve Columbia University physicist Isidor Rabi's method of studying atoms and molecules. In 1937, Rabi used alternati...
 
    Alan Turing, Father of Modern Computing  
Alan Turing was a mathematician who in 1937 suggested a theoretical machine, since called a Turing Machine, that became the basis of modern computing. In 1950 he suggested what has become known as a "Turing's test," still the criterion for...
 
    Edwin Land, Inventor Polaroid  
Edwin Herbert Land was a American scientist, inventor, and industrialist. While studying physics at Harvard in the 1920s he became interested in the polarization of light. He developed a new polarizing material, which he called Polaroid, an...
 
    Rachel Carson, American Conservationist  
Rachel Louise Carson was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U...
 
    Kurt Gödel, Incompleteness Theorems  
Kurt Friedrich Gödel was an Austrian American logician, mathematician, and philosopher. Later in his life he emigrated to the United States to escape the effects of World War II. One of the most significant logicians of all time, Gödel made...
 
    Hans Bethe, Nuclear Physicist  
Hans Albrecht Bethe was a German and American nuclear physicist who, in addition to making important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the the...
 
    Oppenheimer, Father of the Atomic Bomb  
Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is among the persons who are often called the "father of the atomic bomb" for their role in the Manhattan...
 
    John von Neumann, Mathematician  
John von Neumann was a Hungarian American mathematician who made major contributions to a vast range of fields, including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, economics and game theory, co...
 
    Karl Popper, Philosophy of Science  
The most important philosopher of science since Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Sir Karl Popper finally solved the puzzle of scientific method, which in practice had never seemed to conform to the principles or logic described by Bacon -- see Th...
 
    Enrico Fermi, 1st Nuclear Reactor  
Enrico Fermi was an Italian-born, naturalized American physicist particularly known for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and pa...
 
    Werner Heisenberg, Uncertainty Principle  
Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key creators of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during t...
 
       
         
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