573 - 634
  Abu Bakr, The First Caliph  
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, popularly known by his nickname Abu Bakr was a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph...
579 - 644
  Umar, The Second Caliph  
Umar, also spelled Omar, Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Umar Son of Al-Khattab, was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs (rulers) in history. He was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as th...
714 - 775
  Al-Mansur, 2nd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate  
Al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD). He is generally regarded as the real founder of the Abbasid Caliphate. In 762 he founded as new imperial residence and palace city Madinat as-Salam (the cit...
731 - 788
  Abd al-Rahman I, Founder Al-Andalus  
Abd al-Rahman I was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). The Muslims called the regions of Iberia under their dominion al-Andalus....
891 - 961
  Abd-ar-Rahman III, Caliph of Córdoba  
Abd-ar-Rahman III was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus. Called al-Nasir li-Din Allah ("the Defender of God's Faith"), he ascended the throne in his early 20s, and reigned for half a century as th...
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