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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

 
 
150 years

    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  new window
The Industrial Revolution was a period of the 18th century marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely on steam power, fueled primarily by coal, rather than on animal labor, or on water or wind power; and by a shift from artisans who made complete products to factories in which each worker completed a single stage in the manufacturing process. Improvements in transportation encouraged the rapid pace of change.

The causes of the Industrial Revolution remain a topic for debate with some historians seeing it as an outgrowth from the social changes of the Enlightenment and the colonial expansion of the 17th century.

The Industrial Revolution began in the English Midlands and spread throughout England and into continental Europe and the northern United States in the 19th century.

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The Industrial Revolution was a period of the 18th century marked by social and technological change in which manufacturing began to rely on steam power, fueled primarily by coal, rather than on animal labor, or on water or wind power; and by a shift from artisans who made complete products to factories in which each worker completed a single stage in the manufacturing process. Improvements in transportation encouraged the rapid pace of change.

The causes of the Industrial Revolution remain a topic for debate with some historians seeing it as an outgrowth from the social changes of the Enlightenment and the colonial expansion of the 17th century.

The Industrial Revolution began in the English Midlands and spread throughout England and into continental Europe and the northern United States in the 19th century. More new window

 
    ENLIGHTENMENT
  ENLIGHTENMENT
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed thems...
 
    Savery, Inventor Steam Engine - 1698
  Savery, Inventor Steam Engine - 1698
Thomas Savery was an English inventor. Initially interested in naval applications of engineering (he designed an early paddle-wheel), Savery then became interested in pumping machines. On July 2, 1698 he patented an early steam engine, and in 1702 he...
 
    Adam Smith, Economist
  Adam Smith, Economist
Smith moved to London in 1776, where he published "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," which examined in detail the consequences of economic freedom. It covered such concepts as the role of self-interest, the division of...
 
    Immanuel Kant, German Philosopher
  Immanuel Kant, German Philosopher
One of the greatest figures in the history of Metaphysics. After 1755 he taught at the Univ. of Kšnigsberg and achieved wide renown through his teachings and writings. According to Kant, his reading of Hume woke him from his dogmatic slumber and led...
 
    George Washington, 1st US President
  George Washington, 1st US President
On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States. "As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a P...
 
    James Watt, Engineer
  James Watt, Engineer
James Watt's improvements in 1769 and 1784 to the steam engine converted a machine of limited use, to one of efficiency and many applications. It was the foremost energy source in the emerging Industrial Revolution, and greatly multiplied its product...
 
    Luigi Galvani
  Luigi Galvani
Galvani was born, educated and taught anatomy in Bologna. The Italian physiologist made one of the early discoveries that advanced the study of electricity. His work with frogs led to his discovery in 1781 of galvanic or voltaic electricity. Galvani...
 
    Lavoisier, Father of Modern Chemistry
  Lavoisier, Father of Modern Chemistry
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, was a French noble prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (178...
 
    Thomas Jefferson, 3rd US President
  Thomas Jefferson, 3rd US President
Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, third president of the United States 1801-1809, and founder of the University of Virginia, voiced the aspirations of a new America as no ot...
 
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher, one of the greatest figures in Western literature. Throughout his life Goethe was interested in a variety of studies and pursuits. He made important discoveries in connection with...
 
    Louis XVI, Guillotined 1793
  Louis XVI, Guillotined 1793
Louis XVI was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. Suspended and arrested during the insurrection of the 10th of August, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason with the e...
 
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
He showed musical gifts at a very early age, composing when he was five and when he was six playing before the Bavarian elector and the Austrian empress. Leopold felt that it was proper, and might also be profitable, to exhibit his children's God-giv...
 
    William Blake, Poet and Painter
  William Blake, Poet and Painter
William Blake was a British poet, painter, visionary mystic, and engraver, who illustrated and printed his own books. Blake proclaimed the supremacy of the imagination over the rationalism and materialism of the 18th- century. Misunderstanding shadow...
 
    Horatio Nelson, Admiral
  Horatio Nelson, Admiral
200 years after his death, Horatio Nelson is still Britain's most popular hero. Nelson's great victories at the Nile (1 August 1798) and Copenhagen (2 April 1801) made him an international hero in his own lifetime. He was mobbed in the streets, lik...
 
    Mary Wollstonecraft, Feminist
  Mary Wollstonecraft, Feminist
Wollstonecraft's lasting place in the history of philosophy rests upon A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). In this classical feminist text, she appealed to egalitarian social philosophy as the basis for the creation and preservation of equal...
 
    Joseph Niépce, Inventor of Photography
  Joseph Niépce, Inventor of Photography
When the craze for the newly invented art of lithography swept France in 1813, it naturally attracted Joseph's attention. Unable to draw well, he placed engravings, made transparent, on stones coated with light-sensitive varnish of his own compositio...
 
    Napoleon Bonaparte
  Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte was general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French under the name Napoléon I from 18 May 1804 to 6 April 1814, and was b...
 
    Declaration of Independence, 4th of July
  Declaration of Independence, 4th of July
The Declaration of Independence has been described as the most important document in human history. Here, in the memorable language of the famous preamble, a hundred and ten words fatally undermined the political basis of the old order and proclaimed...
 
    Lord Byron, Poet
  Lord Byron, Poet
George Gordon Noel Byron, 6th Baron Byron, was among the most famous of the English 'Romantic' poets; his contemporaries included Percy Shelley and John Keats. He was also a satirist whose poetry and personality captured the imagination of Europe....
 
    Michael Faraday, Producing Electricity
  Michael Faraday, Producing Electricity
Michael Faraday was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of...
 
    Hans Christian Andersen
  Hans Christian Andersen
Andersen's literary fame grew rapidly from the mid-1830's, when his novels enjoyed widespread circulation in Germany. From 1839 onwards it was the fairy-tales that created his quite exceptional reputation in that country. It is from the mid-1840's th...
 
    Charles Darwin, Evolution Theory - 1859
  Charles Darwin, Evolution Theory - 1859
Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist who realised and presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors, through the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution occurs beca...
 
    Abraham Lincoln, 16th US President
  Abraham Lincoln, 16th US President
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States (1861-1865), guided his country through the most devastating experience in its national history-the CIVIL WAR (1861-1865). He is considered by many historians to have been the greatest American...
 
    Charles Dickens
  Charles Dickens
Dickens' ability to capture the imagination of his audience, many of them new to fiction due to a rise in literacy during the industrial revolution, was due largely to his amazing power of observation, incredible wit, unforgettable characters, and a...
 
    Richard Wagner
  Richard Wagner
Der Ring des Nibelungen ("The Ring of the Nibelung", "The Nibelung's Ring", or simply, "The Ring") consists of four musico-dramatic works. These four works constitute a whole, and were meant to be performed during a single week, something that is sel...
 
    Karl Marx, Founder Communism
  Karl Marx, Founder Communism
Karl Marx, with Friedrich Engels, a founder of modern socialism and communism. The son of a lawyer, he studied law and philosophy; he rejected the idealism of Hegel but was influenced by Ludwig Feuerbach and Moses Hess. His editorship (1842-43) of th...
 
    Victoria, Queen of England
  Victoria, Queen of England
Victoria was the daughter of Edward, the Duke of Kent and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg. She was born in Kensington Palace in London on May 24th, 1819. In 1837 Queen Victoria took the throne after the death of her uncle William IV. Due to her secl...
 
    Herman Melville, Writer of Moby Dick
  Herman Melville, Writer of Moby Dick
American author, best-known for his novels of the sea and his masterpiece MOBY-DICK (1851), a whaling adventure dedicated to Nathaniel Hawthorne. "I have written a wicked book and feel as spotless as the lamb," Melville wrote to Hawthorne. The work w...
 
    Paul Kruger, President of Transvaal
  Paul Kruger, President of Transvaal
Paul Kruger was instrumental in negotiations with the British, which later led to the restoration of Transvaal as an independent state under British rule. In 1882, the 57 year old Paul Kruger was elected president of Transvaal. He left for En...
 
    Jules Verne, Pioneer of Science Fiction
  Jules Verne, Pioneer of Science Fiction
Jules Verne, French writer and pioneer of science fiction, whose best known works today are Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea(1870) and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). Jules Gabriel Verne was born on February 8, 1828, in Nantes, Fran...
 
    Leo Tolstoy, Russian Writer
  Leo Tolstoy, Russian Writer
Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Later in life, he also wrote plays and essays. His two most famous works, the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, are acknowledged as two of the greatest...
 
    Maxwell, Light is an Electromagnetic Wave
  Maxwell, Light is an Electromagnetic Wave
James Maxwell's most important achievement was his extension and mathematical formulation of Michael Faraday's theories of electricity and magnetic lines of force. In his research, conducted between 1864 and 1873, Maxwell showed that a few relatively...
 
    Edouard Manet, Impressionist
  Edouard Manet, Impressionist
French painter and printmaker who in his own work accomplished the transition from the realism of Gustave Courbet to Impressionism. Manet broke new ground in choosing subjects from the events and appearances of his own time and in stressing the defi...
 
    Paul Cézanne, Post-Impressionist
  Paul Cézanne, Post-Impressionist
Paul Cézanne, French painter, one of the greatest of the Postimpressionists, whose works and ideas were influential in the aesthetic development of many 20th-century artists and art movements, especially Cubism. Cézanne's art, misunderstood and disc...
 
    Vincent van Gogh, Post-Impressionists
  Vincent van Gogh, Post-Impressionists
One of the four great Post-impressionists (along with Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Paul Cézanne), Vincent van Gogh is generally considered the greatest Dutch painter after Rembrandt. His reputation is based largely on the works of the last three...
 
    Rudolf Diesel, Inventor Diesel Engine 1893
  Rudolf Diesel, Inventor Diesel Engine 1893
Born in Paris of Bavarian parents, Diesel studied at Munich Polytechnic. He began his career as a refrigerator engineer. For ten years he worked on various heat engines, including a solar-powered air engine. Diesel's ideas for an engine where the com...
 
    Statue of Liberty, New York
  Statue of Liberty, New York
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed by Frédéric Augus...
 
    The Eiffel Tower, Paris
  The Eiffel Tower, Paris
The plan to build a tower 300 metres high was conceived as part of preparations for the World's Fair of 1889. Emile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin, the two chief engineers in Eiffel's company, had the idea for a very tall tower in June 1884. It was to...
 
    IOC : The Modern Olympic Games
  IOC : The Modern Olympic Games
Greece was the birthplace of the ancient Olympic Games. The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896. The International Olympic Committee was founded on 23 June 1894 by the French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was inspired to r...
 
    20th CENTURY
  20th CENTURY
The twentieth century was remarkable due to the technological, medical, social, ideological, and international innovations, and due to the rise of war, genocide, and democide on an unprecedented scale. The trends of mechanization of goods & services...
 
 

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