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Isaac Newton, Theory of Gravitation 






Isaac Newton, Theory of Gravitation > Website
Newton laid the foundation for differential and integral calculus. His work on optics and gravitation make him one of the greatest scientists the world has known. Newton's greatest achievement was his work in physics and celestial mechanics, which culminated in the theory of universal gravitation. By 1666 Newton had early versions of his three laws of motion. He had also discovered the law giving the centrifugal force on a body moving uniformly in a circular path. However he did not have a correct understanding of the mechanics of circular motion.
Newton's novel idea of 1666 was to imagine that the Earth's gravity influenced the Moon, counter balancing its centrifugal force. From his law of centrifugal force and Kepler's third law of planetary motion, Newton deduced the inversesquare law.














Aristotle, Greek Philosopher
He studied (367347 B.C.) under Plato and later (342339 B.C.) tutored Alexander the Great at the Macedonian court. In 335 B.C. he opened a school in the Athenian Lyceum. During the antiMacedonian agitation after Alexander's death Aristotle fled (32... 






Euclid of Alexandria, Mathematician
Euclid of Alexandria is the most prominent mathematician of antiquity best known for his treatise on mathematics The Elements. The long lasting nature of The Elements must make Euclid the leading mathematics teacher of all time. However little is kno... 






Copernicus, Earth moves around the Sun
Nicolaus Copernicus was the first astronomer to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Sp... 






Johannes Kepler, Laws Planetary Motion
Johannes Kepler is now chiefly remembered for discovering the three laws of planetary motion that bear his name published in 1609 and 1619). He also did important work in optics (1604, 1611), discovered two new regular polyhedra (1619), gave the firs... 






Thomas Hobbes, Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.... 






René Descartes, French Philosopher
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his... 






Christiaan Huygens, Dutch Scientist
Christiaan Huygens came from an important Dutch family. Huygens's first publications in 1651 and 1654 considered mathematical problems. The 1651 publication Cyclometriae showed the fallacy in methods proposed by Gregory of SaintVincent, who had clai... 






Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher
Robert Hooke  natural philosopher, inventor, architect, chemist, mathematician, physicist, engineer. Robert Hooke is one of the most neglected natural philosophers of all time. The inventor of, amongst other things, the iris diaphragm in cameras, th... 






Gottfried W. Leibniz, Discovery of Calculus
German philosopher, physicist, and mathematician whose mechanical studies included forces and weights. He believed in a deterministic universe which followed a "preestablished harmony." He extended the work of his mentor Huygens from kinematics to... 






Edmond Halley, Astronomer
Edmond Halley, Astronomer, remembered because his name is attached to a comet. Leaving Queen's College, Oxford, without a degree in 1676, he went to St Helena to map the southern stars. After a famous meeting with Wren and Hooke, he visited Newton in... 






The Royal Society of London
The origins of the Royal Society lie in a group of men who began meeting in the mid1640s to discuss the new philosophy. Its official foundation date is 28 November 1660, when 12 of them met at Gresham College after a lecture by Christopher Wren, the... 






Johann Bernoulli, Mathematician
Johann Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is known for his contributions to infinitesimal calculus and educated Leonhard Euler in his youth. Throughout Johann Bernoulli’s e... 






George Berkeley, Philosopher
George Berkeley was one of the three most famous (Locke and Hume) eighteenth century British Empiricists. He is best known for his motto, esse is percipi, to be is to be perceived. He was an idealist: everything that exists is either a mind or depend... 






Willem 's Gravesande, Mathematician
Willem Jacob 's Gravesande was a Dutch philosopher and mathematician. His chief contribution to physics involved an experiment in which brass balls were dropped with varying velocity onto a soft clay surface. His results were that a ball with twice t... 






Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Mathematician
PierreLouis Moreau de Maupertuis was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters. He became the Director of the Académie des Sciences, and the first President of the Berlin Academy of Science, at the invitation of Frederick the Great. Mau... 






Euler, Mathematician and Physicist
Leonhard Euler was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularl... 






Erik Verlinde, Physicist
Erik Peter Verlinde is a Dutch theoretical physicist and string theorist. He is the identical twin brother of Herman Verlinde. The Verlinde formula, which is important in Conformal field theory and Topological field theory, is named after him. His re... 



















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