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Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for the development of calculus.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System. This work also demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. His prediction that Earth should be shaped as an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, which helped convince most Continental European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to noninteger exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.



Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for the development of calculus.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, and then using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System. This work also demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. His prediction that Earth should be shaped as an oblate spheroid was later vindicated by the measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, which helped convince most Continental European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over the earlier system of Descartes.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to noninteger exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.
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Aristotle, Greek Philosopher
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Euclid of Alexandria, Mathematician
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Copernicus, Earth moves around the Sun
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Scientific Revolution
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Johannes Kepler, Laws Planetary Motion
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Thomas Hobbes, Philosopher
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René Descartes, I think, therefore I am
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Cavalieri, Infinitesimal Calculus
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Christiaan Huygens, Dutch Scientist
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Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher
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Gottfried W. Leibniz, Discovery of Calculus
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Edmond Halley, Astronomer
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The Royal Society of London
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Johann Bernoulli, Mathematician
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George Berkeley, Philosopher
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William Stukeley, Stonehenge Investigator
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Willem 's Gravesande, Mathematician
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Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Mathematician
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Euler, Mathematician and Physicist
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PierreSimon, Marquis de Laplace
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Fraunhofer, Founding Stellar Spectroscopy, 1814
Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer is known for discovering the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.
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Michael Faraday, Producing Electricity
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Erik Verlinde, Physicist and String Theorist
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