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The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), aka Caesar’s Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (aka the boni), the politically conservative, socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions. After a four-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuus (Perpetual Dictator) of Rome. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476).

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The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), aka Caesar’s Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (aka the boni), the politically conservative, socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions. After a four-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuus (Perpetual Dictator) of Rome. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476). More

 
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