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Johan Rudolf Thorbecke was one of the most important Dutch politicians. In 1848, he virtually singlehandedly drafted the revision of the Dutch constitution, giving fewer powers to the king, and more to the parliament.

Thorbecke was born in Zwolle, and began studying history and classic literature in Amsterdam in order to avoid conscription. After teaching in Germany and Belgium, he was promoted to professor in diplomacy and modern history at the University of Leiden in 1830. In 1839, he published his criticisms of the government of King William I of the Netherlands; as a result, he became a well-known political figure. Five years later, together with eight other politicians, he formulated a proposal to change the Dutch constitution. The proposal, known as the Voorstel der Negenmannen ("proposition of the nine men"), did not pass through the Tweede Kamer, the second chamber of the Dutch parliament.

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Johan Rudolf Thorbecke was one of the most important Dutch politicians. In 1848, he virtually singlehandedly drafted the revision of the Dutch constitution, giving fewer powers to the king, and more to the parliament.

Thorbecke was born in Zwolle, and began studying history and classic literature in Amsterdam in order to avoid conscription. After teaching in Germany and Belgium, he was promoted to professor in diplomacy and modern history at the University of Leiden in 1830. In 1839, he published his criticisms of the government of King William I of the Netherlands; as a result, he became a well-known political figure. Five years later, together with eight other politicians, he formulated a proposal to change the Dutch constitution. The proposal, known as the Voorstel der Negenmannen ("proposition of the nine men"), did not pass through the Tweede Kamer, the second chamber of the Dutch parliament. More

 
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