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Charles II of England

 
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Charles II was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 1649 until his death. His father Charles I had been executed in 1649, following the English Civil War; the monarchy was then abolished and the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland became a republic under Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector (see Commonwealth of England and The Protectorate). In 1660, shortly after Cromwell's death, the monarchy was restored under Charles II.

Unlike his father Charles I, Charles II was skilled at managing the Parliament of England so much so that Charles is still considered one of England's greatest kings. It was during his reign that the Whig and Tory political parties developed. He famously fathered numerous illegitimate children, of whom he acknowledged fourteen. Known as the "Merry Monarch", Charles was a patron of the arts and less restrictive than many of his predecessors. By converting to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed, Charles II became the first Roman Catholic to reign over England since the death of Mary I of England in 1558 and over Scotland since the deposition of Mary I of Scotland in 1567. The Catholic part of his reign lasted no more than a few moments, but he had firmly supported the succession of his brother (James II), who was Catholic.
 
 
         
    Oliver Cromwell
  Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was an English military leader and politician. After leading the rebellion against the British monarchy (Charles I), he ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland as a semi-autocratic Lord Protector, from December 16, 1653 until his death,...
 
    Charles I of England
  Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. As he was an advocate of the Divine Right of Kings, many in England feare...
 
    Sir George Downing, Downing Street
  Sir George Downing, Downing Street
Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet was an Anglo-Irish soldier, statesman, and diplomat. Downing Street in London is named after him. As Treasury Secretary he is credited with instituting major reforms in public finance. His influence was substantial on...
 
    Jan de Witt, Dutch Politician
  Jan de Witt, Dutch Politician
Jan de Witt and his brother Cornelius were murdered by an angry mob for their opposition to William of Orange. Like his father, Jacob de Witt, burgomaster of Dort, he became a leading opponent of the house of Orange and played a vital role in the thr...
 
    Louis XIV, The Sun King
  Louis XIV, The Sun King
Louis XIV reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from 1643 until his death at 77 years old. He inherited the Crown at the age of four, but he did not actually assume personal control of the government until the death of his chief minister, Jul...
 
    Thomas Tompion, English Clockmaker
  Thomas Tompion, English Clockmaker
Thomas Tompion was an English clock maker, watchmaker and mechanician who is still regarded to this day as the Father of English Clockmaking. Tompion's work includes some of the most historic and important clocks and watches in the world and can comm...
 
    The English Civil War
  The English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers). The first (164246) and second (164849) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the...
 
    First Anglo-Dutch War
  First Anglo-Dutch War
The First Anglo-Dutch War (called the First Dutch War in England, and the First English War in the Netherlands) was the first of the four Anglo-Dutch Wars. It was fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United...
 
    Second Anglo-Dutch War
  Second Anglo-Dutch War
The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade. After an initial English success it ended in a Dutch victory. English and F...
 
    Great Fire of London, 1666
  Great Fire of London, 1666
The Great Fire of London, a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666, was one of the major events in the history of England. The fire gutted the medieval City of London...
 
    The Raid on the Medway
  The Raid on the Medway
One of the more unfortunate events in the British naval history happened on 12 14th June. 1667, when a Dutch fleet sailed up the river Medway in Kent and destroyed several British ships laid up ijn Chatham Dockyard, capturing the "Royal C...
 
         



 
 
         
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