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    Hannibal, General of Carthage
  Hannibal, General of Carthage
Hannibal was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician who is popularly credited as one of the most talented commanders in history. His father Hamilcar Barca was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brother...
 
    Scipio Africanus, Defeated Hannibal
  Scipio Africanus, Defeated Hannibal
Scipio Africanus was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen Africanus, the nickname "the...
 
    History of Barcelona
  History of Barcelona
Barcelona has emerged from a spotty history. With Castilian kings pumping cannonballs over the city walls and anarchists disagreeing on which shoulder to hang their rifles, the city shrank in the shadow of greater cities and powers for centuries....
 
    Julius Caesar
  Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar is remembered as one of history's greatest generals and a key ruler of the Roman empire. As a young man he rose through the administrative ranks of the Roman republic, accumulating power until he was elected consul in 59 B.C. Over...
 
 
53 - 117
  Trajan, 13th Roman Emperor
  Trajan, 13th Roman Emperor
Trajan was Roman emperor (A.D. 98-A.D. 117). Born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in A.D. 97 by Emperor Nerva, who died shortly afterward. A capa...
 
 
347 - 395
  Theodosius the Great, Roman Emperor
  Theodosius the Great, Roman Emperor
Theodosius also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Reuniting the eastern and western portions of the empire, Theodosius was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. After his death,...
 
 
560 - 636
  Isidore of Seville
  Isidore of Seville
Saint Isidore of Seville was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "le dernier savant du monde ancien" ("the last scholar of the ancient world"). Indeed, all...
 
    Timeline of the Reconquista
  Timeline of the Reconquista
European Voyages of Exploration: Iberia was invaded in 711 by Muslim armies that succeeded in conquering most of the southern regions of the peninsula within seven years. This began a 700-year intermittent struggle for control over Iberia between the...
 
 
731 - 788
  Abd al-Rahman I, Founder Al-Andalus
  Abd al-Rahman I, Founder Al-Andalus
Abd al-Rahman I was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). The Muslims called the regions of Iberia under their dominion al-Andalus. Abd al-Rah...
 
 
742 - 814
  Charlemagne, Charles I the Great
  Charlemagne, Charles I the Great
Charlemagne, meaning Charles the Great, was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe...
 
 
889 - 961
  Abd-ar-Rahman III, Caliph of Córdoba
  Abd-ar-Rahman III, Caliph of Córdoba
Abd-ar-Rahman III was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus. Called al-Nasir li-Din Allah ("the Defender of God's Faith"), he ascended the throne in his early 20s, and reigned for half a century as the most pow...
 
    Alfonso VI of León and Castile
  Alfonso VI of León and Castile
Alfonso VI, nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065, king of King of Castile and de facto King of Galicia from 1072, and self-proclaimed "Emperor of all Spain". Much romance has gathered around his name. Alfonso VI s...
 
    El Cid, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
  El Cid, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar, nicknamed El Cid Campeador, was a Castilian military and political leader in medieval Spain. Born of the minor nobility, El Cid was educated in the royal Castilian court and became an important general and administrato...
 
    Peter I of Aragon and Navarre
  Peter I of Aragon and Navarre
Peter I was the King of Aragon and Navarre for a decade from 1094 until his death. He was the son and successor of Sancho V Ramírez by his first wife, Isabella of Urgell. He was named in honour of Saint Peter, because of his father's special devotion...
 
    Alfonso the Battler
  Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior (Spanish: el Batallador), was the king of Aragon and Navarre from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. With his marriage to Urrac...
 
 

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