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    John Knox, Founder Presbyterians Scotland  
John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to...
 
    Michael Servetus, Physician & Theologian  
Michael Servetus was a Spanish physician and theologian. His views alienated both Roman Catholics and Protestants, beginning with the publication of his first book, De Trinitatis erroribus (1531), in which he denied the Holy Trinity. His m...
 
    Index Librorum Prohibitorum  
The principle of a list of forbidden books was adopted at the Fifth Lateran Council in 1515, then confirmed by the Council of Trent in 1546. The first edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, dated 1557 was published by Pope Paul IV. T...
 
    Mary I of England, Bloody Mary  
Mary I was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive and bloody attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. Her pursuit...
 
    The Ninety-Five Theses, Martin Luther  
The Ninety-Five Theses (original Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum) were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests agai...
 
    John Foxe, English Historian  
John Foxe was an English historian and martyrologist, the author of what is popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, (properly The Acts and Monuments), an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history but emphasizing the sufferi...
 
    REFORMATION : Protestants vs The Catholic Church  
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants. Although there had been significant attempts at reform before Luther (notably those of John Wycliffe...
 
    René of Châlon, Prince of Orange  
René of Châlon was a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre. René was born in Breda, the only son of Count Henry III of Nassau-Breda and Claudia of Châlon. Claudia's brother, Philibert of Châlon, and the anc...
 
    Henry II, King of France  
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547, until his death in 1559. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Ann...
 
    Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France  
Catherine de' Medici was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici. Both of her parents, Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Countess of Boulogne, died within weeks of h...
 
    Count of Egmont  
Count Lamoral of Egmont was a Flemish general and statesman. He was Fillips II's supreme commander and achieved important victories on the French. Therefore he became appointed by Fillips II as governor of Flanders and Artesia, as a member...
 
    Reformation Iconoclasm, Europe  
Some of the Protestant reformers, in particular Andreas Karlstadt, Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, encouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven images of God...
 
    German Peasants' War  
The German Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (German: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524–1525. It failed because of the intense opposition of the aristocracy, wh...
 
    Philip II of Spain  
Philip II, king of Spain and Portugal, was born at Valladolid, the only son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Philip II, the self-proclaimed leader of Counter-Reformation, assumed the throne in 1556 with a great...
 
    Siege of Vienna  
The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, represented the farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be si...
 
       
 
         
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