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    Pharos, The Lighthouse of Alexandria   Pharos, The Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria, was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC on the island of Pharos at Alexandria, Egypt. Its purpose was to guide sailors into the harbour at night. With a height variously estimated...
 
    William of Wykeham   William of Wykeham
William of Wykeham was Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England, founder of Winchester College and of New College, Oxford, and builder of a large part of Windsor Castle. William was born to an undistinguished family, in Wickham, Hampshire, and...
 
    Ibn Khaldun, Arab Scholar   Ibn Khaldun, Arab Scholar
Ibn Khaldun or Aith Khaldoun was a Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, and one of the founding fathers of modern historiography, sociology and economics. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomena in Greek), which was discove...
 
    Tamerlane (Timur) the Great   Tamerlane (Timur) the Great
Timur meaning "iron" or Tamerlane in English, was a 14th-century conqueror of much of western and central Asia, founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (13701405) in Central Asia, and great great grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mu...
 
    Robert III, King of Scots   Robert III, King of Scots
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was known primarily as the Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at age 53. He was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimated with the marriage...
 
    The Hundred Years' War   The Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line...
 
    Margaret III, Countess of Flanders   Margaret III, Countess of Flanders
Margaret of Dampierre was the last Countess of Flanders (as Margaret III) of the House of Dampierre, Countess of Artois and Countess Palatine of Burgundy (as Margaret II) and twice Duchess consort of Burgundy. Margaret was widowed in 1361, and wi...
 
    Vytautas the Great, Ruler of Lithuania   Vytautas the Great, Ruler of Lithuania
Vytautas the Great (c. 1350 1430) was one of the most famous rulers of medieval Lithuania. Vytautas was the ruler (13921430) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Hrodna...
 
    Jogaila, King of Poland   Jogaila, King of Poland
Jogaila (c. 1351/1362 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (13771434), King of the Kingdom of Poland (13861399), and then sole King of Poland (13991434). He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. In 1386 in Kraków he was baptized as Wladyslaw, married the y...
 
    Margaret I of Denmark, Norway, Sweden   Margaret I of Denmark, Norway, Sweden
Margaret I was queen consort of Norway and Sweden, omnipotent ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over a century. De facto a queen regnant, the laws of contemporary Danish...
 
    Bayezid I, The Thunderbolt   Bayezid I, The Thunderbolt
Bayezid I, nicknamed Yildirim, "the Thunderbolt", was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Valide Sultan Gülçiçek Hatun. In 1394, Bayezid laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Emp...
 
    John I of Portugal   John I of Portugal
John I, called the Good (sometimes the Great) or of Happy Memory, was the tenth King of Portugal and the Algarve and the first to use the title Lord of Ceuta. He was the natural son of Peter I by a noble Galician woman named Teresa Lourenço, daughter...
 
    Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Founder Medici Bank   Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Founder Medici Bank
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici was an Italian banker, the first historically relevant member of Medici family of Florence, and the founder of the Medici bank. He was the father of Cosimo de' Medici (Pater Patriae), and great-grandfather of Lorenzo de M...
 
    Charles VI, The Beloved, The Mad   Charles VI, The Beloved, The Mad
Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was the King of France from 1380 to 1422, as a member of the House of Valois. His bouts with madness, which seem to have begun in 1392, led to quarrels among the French royal family, which were exploited by...
 
    Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor   Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund was King of Hungary, of Croatia from 1387 to 1437, of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Lombardy from 1431, and of Germany from 141...
 
       
         



 
 
         
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