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L. E. J. Brouwer, Dutch Mathematician
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, a graduate of the University of Amsterdam, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex a... 






Albert Einstein, Relativity Theory  1905
Einstein's contributions to physics began in 1905 with three major results: the explanation of Brownian motion in terms of molecules; the explanation of the photoelectric effect in terms of the quantum; and the special theory of relativity that links... 






G. H. Hardy, Mathematician
Godfrey Harold Hardy was a prominent English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. Nonmathematicians usually know him for A Mathematician's Apology, his essay from 1940 on the aesthetics of mathematics... 






Russell, Philosopher & Mathematician
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3d Earl, was a British philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer, b. Trelleck, Wales. Russell had a distinguished background: His grandfather Lord John Russell Russell introduced the Reform Bill of 1832 and was... 






Minkowski, German Mathematician
Hermann Minkowski was a German mathematician of Lithuanian Jewish descent, who created and developed the geometry of numbers and who used geometrical methods to solve difficult problems in number theory, mathematical physics, and the theory of relati... 






David Hilbert, German Mathematician
David Hilbert, was a German mathematician. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including... 






Husserl, Founder of Phenomenology
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a philosopher and mathematician who is deemed the founder of phenomenology. He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psycho... 






Poincaré, Founder Modern Chaos Theory
Jules Henri Poincaré was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed du... 






Hendrik Lorentz, Dutch Physicist
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect.
Lorentz studied physics and mathematics at the University of Leiden, where he was st... 






Josiah Willard Gibbs, Physicist
Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American theoretical physicist, chemist, and mathematician. He devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics as well as physical chemistry. As a mathematician, he invented vector analysis (independ... 






Edwin A. Abbott, Author of Flatland
Edwin Abbott Abbott, English schoolmaster and theologian, is best known as the author of the mathematical satire and religious allegory Flatland (1884): A Romance of Many Dimensions which describes a twodimensional world and explores the nature of d... 






Lewis Carroll, Author Alice in Wonderland
The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman, and photographer. His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Thro... 






Maxwell, Light is an Electromagnetic Wave
James Maxwell's most important achievement was his extension and mathematical formulation of Michael Faraday's theories of electricity and magnetic lines of force. In his research, conducted between 1864 and 1873, Maxwell showed that a few relatively... 






Lord Kelvin, William Thomson
The Right Honourable William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, GCVO, OM, PC, PRS was a ScottishIrish mathematical physicist and engineer, an outstanding leader in the physical sciences of the 19th century. Kelvin is known especially for his work on heat an... 






John Adams, Predicted Neptune  1841
John Adams was an English mathematician and astronomer who predicted the existence of Neptune. While a student at Cambridge he wrote this note (found only after his death) dated Jul. 3, 1841: Formed a design at the beginning of this week of investiga... 


























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