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Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century. Hubble is known for s... 






Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman or Friedmann was a Russian and Soviet cosmologist and mathematician. He discovered the expandinguniverse solution to the general relativity field equations in 1922, which was corroborated by Edwin Hubble's observatio... 






Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician and autodidact. Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. Ramanu... 






John Maynard Keynes is doubtlessly one the most important figures in the entire history of economics. He revolutionized economics with his classic book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936). This is generally regarded as proba... 






Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, a graduate of the University of Amsterdam, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex a... 






Einstein's contributions to physics began in 1905 with three major results: the explanation of Brownian motion in terms of molecules; the explanation of the photoelectric effect in terms of the quantum; and the special theory of relativity that links... 






Godfrey Harold Hardy was a prominent English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. Nonmathematicians usually know him for A Mathematician's Apology, his essay from 1940 on the aesthetics of mathematics... 






Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3d Earl, was a British philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer, b. Trelleck, Wales. Russell had a distinguished background: His grandfather Lord John Russell Russell introduced the Reform Bill of 1832 and was... 






Emanuel Lasker was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921). In his prime Lasker was one of the most dominant champions, and he is still generally regarded as one of the stron... 






Hermann Minkowski was a German mathematician of Lithuanian Jewish descent, who created and developed the geometry of numbers and who used geometrical methods to solve difficult problems in number theory, mathematical physics, and the theory of relati... 






David Hilbert, was a German mathematician. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including... 






Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a philosopher and mathematician who is deemed the founder of phenomenology. He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psycho... 






Jules Henri Poincaré was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed du... 






Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect.
Lorentz studied physics and mathematics at the University of Leiden, where he was st... 






Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American theoretical physicist, chemist, and mathematician. He devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics as well as physical chemistry. As a mathematician, he invented vector analysis (independ... 



















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