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    Selim III, Ottoman Sultan  
Selim III, Ottoman sultan (1789-1807), nephew and successor of Abd al-Hamid I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He suffered severe defeats in the second of the Russo-Turkish Wars with Catherine II, but suffered no major territor...
 
    The Social Contract, Rousseau  
Revolutionary in its own time and controversial to this day, this work is a permanent classic of political theory and a key source of democratic belief. Rousseau's concepts of "the general will" as a mode of self-interest uniting for a comm...
 
    Emile, Rousseau  
This work by Jean Jacques Rousseau probably represents the single greatest work in defining what we would call education today. I am a Francophone living in Northern Ontario and so I have read just the french version, but barring that I bel...
 
    George IV of Great Britain and Ireland  
George IV was the king of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regen...
 
    Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp, Driemanschap  
Gijsbert Karel, Count van Hogendorp was a conservative Dutch statesman. He was part of the Driemanschap (Triumvirate) that invited William I of the Netherlands to become Prince of the new independent Netherlands in 1813. He served as Prime...
 
    Josephine, Empress of France  
Joséphine de Beauharnais was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French. Her first husband Alexandre de Beauharnais was guillotined during the Reign of Terror, and she was imprisoned in the Carmes prison until...
 
    James Kirkpatrick, Resident in Hyderabad  
Lieutenant Colonel James Achilles Kirkpatrick was the British Resident in Hyderabad from 1798 to 1805. He also built the historic Koti Residency in Hyderabad, a landmark and major tourist attraction. He married a local Hyderabadi noblewoman...
 
    Bennelong, Aboriginal Interlocutor  
Woollarawarre Bennelong was a senior man of the Eora, an Aboriginal (Koori) people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the first British settlement in Australia, in 1788. Bennelong served as an interlocutor between the Eora and the Bri...
 
    The Lunar Society of Birmingham  
The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in...
 
    Robert Fulton, 1st Practical Submarine  
Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat. He also designed a new type of steam warship. In 1800 he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to desig...
 
    Johann Friedrich Pfaff, Mathematician  
Johann Friedrich Pfaff was a German mathematician. He was described as one of Germany's most eminent mathematicians during the 19th century. He studied integral calculus, and is noted for his work on partial differential equations of the fi...
 
    Joseph Niépce, Inventor of Photography - 1826  
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliography, a technique he used to create the world's oldest surviving product of a photograph...
 
    William IV of Great Britain and Ireland  
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. William, the third son of George III and younger brother and successor to George IV, was the last king and penultimate...
 
    Malthus, Principle of Population  
The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus was a British scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent. Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase o...
 
    Thomas Bruce, Elgin Marbles Parthenon Athens  
Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine was a British nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures (also known as the Elgin Marbles) from the Parthenon in Athens. Elgin was the second son of Charles...
 
       
 
         
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