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    Peter III, The Great, King of Aragon and Sicily  
Peter the Great was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) and Valencia (as Peter I) and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death. He conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese m...
 
    King Edward I of England, Longshanks  
Edward I, popularly known as "Longshanks" because of his 6 foot 2 inch (1.88 m) frame and the "Hammer of the Scots" (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardus Primus Scottorum Malleus, "Here is Edward I, Hammer of the Scots"), achieve...
 
    Jacques DeMolay, The Last Templar  
In the two centuries of their known existence the Knights Templar served under twenty-three Grand Masters. It is Jacques DeMolay the twenty-third and last Grand Master however, whom is best know. In 1305, Philip the Fair, King of France,...
 
    Roger of Lauria, Commander of the Aragon Fleet  
Roger of Lauria was a Sicilian admiral in Aragonese service, who was the commander of the fleet of Aragon during the War of the Sicilian Vespers. He was probably the most successful and talented naval tactician of the medieval period. He is...
 
    John XXII, Pope in Avignon - 1316  
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was pope from 1316 to 1334. He was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. He studied medicine in Montpellier and law in Paris. The two-year gap (sede vacante) between the death of Pope Clement V in...
 
    Stabat Mater, Medieval Hymn  
Stabat Mater is a 13th century Roman Catholic sequence attributed to Jacopone da Todi. Its title is an abbreviation of the first line, Stabat mater dolorosa ("The sorrowful mother was standing"). The hymn, one of the most powerful and immed...
 
    Conradin, Last of the Hohenstaufen  
Conrad, called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin, was the Duke of Swabia (12541268, as Conrad IV), King of Jerusalem (12541268, as Conrad III), and King of Sicily (12541258, de jure until 1268, as Conra...
 
    Floris V, Count of Holland  
Count Floris V of Holland (1254-1296), the "Keerlen God" (Peasant God), is one of the most important figures of the first, native dynasty of Holland (833-1299). His life has been documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke, his c...
 
    Marco Polo, Travels to China  
Marco Polo was a Christian merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò a...
 
    The Fall of Baghdad, Mongol Invasions  
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sacking of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under...
 
    Osman I, Founder Ottoman Empire - 1299  
Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) during Osman's lifetime, was named after him and would prevail as...
 
    Shroud of Turin  
The Shroud of Turin (or Turin Shroud) is a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptis...
 
    Battle of Ain Jalut  
The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut) took place on 3 September 1260 between the Egyptian Mamluks and the Mongols in Palestine, in the Jezreel Valley, not far from Ein Harod. This battle is considered by many historians to be of great macr...
 
    Meister Eckhart, German Theologian  
Eckhart von Hochheim, commonly known as Meister Eckhart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire. Eckhart came into prominence during the Avignon Papacy,...
 
    Clement V, First Pope in Avignon - 1309  
Clement settled in Avignon France in 1309. Until this time all Popes had resided in Rome. Avignon would be the home of the Popes until 1378, with but one brief exception. This period at Avignon is often referred to as the "Avignon Captivity...
 
       
 
         
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