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    Johannes Vermeer, Dutch Painter  
Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. His entire life was spent in the town of Delft. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial painter in his lifetime. He seems to...
 
    Baruch Spinoza, Dutch Rationalist Philosopher  
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe, he came to be consid...
 
    Jean-Baptiste Lully, Composer  
Jean-Baptiste Lully, Italian-born French composer. He was court composer to Louis XIV, founding the national French opera and producing court ballets for Molière's plays. Clearly the most successful musician of his time, in terms of power a...
 
    John Locke, Father of Classical Liberalism  
John Locke was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the t...
 
    Antony van Leeuwenhoek, 1st Microbiologist  
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and...
 
    Christopher Wren, Architect St. Paul's Cathedral  
Sir Christopher Michael Wren is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, St. Pau...
 
    James II of England, VII of Scotland  
King James II of England and VII of Scotland was the last Catholic monarch to rule over England, Scotland, and Ireland. His reign, from 1685 to 1688, culminated with the Glorious Revolution, in which Protestants deposed him in favor of Mary...
 
    Samuel Pepys, Diary English Restoration Period  
Samuel Pepys was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary that he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary...
 
    Vauban, Marshal / Military Engineer  
Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban, commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and breaking t...
 
    Kara Mustafa Pasha, Military Leader  
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha was an Ottoman military leader and grand vizier who was a central character in the empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central Europe and Eastern Europe. In 1683, he launched a campaign northward...
 
    Nicolaes Maes, Painter  
Nicolaes Maes, also known as Nicolaes Maas was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre and portraits. In about 1648 he went to Amsterdam, where he entered Rembrandt's studio. Before his return to Dordrecht in 1653 Maes painted a few Rembrandtes...
 
    Frans van Mieris the Elder, Painter  
Frans van Mieris, the elder, was a Dutch Golden Age genre and portrait painter. The leading member of a Leiden family of painters, his sons Jan (16601690) and Willem (16621747) and his grandson Frans van Mieris the Younger (16891763) wer...
 
    Robert Hooke, Natural Philosopher  
Robert Hooke, natural philosopher, inventor, architect, chemist, mathematician, physicist, engineer. Robert Hooke is one of the most neglected natural philosophers of all time. The inventor of, amongst other things, the iris diaphragm in ca...
 
    Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts  
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, whose history, influence and wealth have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Established in 1636 by the Massachusetts...
 
    Gerrit Battem, Dutch Landscape and Marine Painter  
Gerrit Battem was a superior Dutch landscape painter. Houbraken mentions drawings by Battem in the house of his patron Jonas van Witsen of Amsterdam, who bought them for 1300 guilders along with colored drawings by Adriaen van Ostade in...
 
       
 
         
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